by Michael J. McGroarty
If you are preparing beds for landscaping around your house
this article should
simplify the process for you. I say that
because of everything that is written about this subject, some
of it is accurate, some of it is just plain wrong, and much of
it is much more complicated than it needs to be. I like to think
of myself as Simple Simon. I find the easiest, yet most
effective way to do things, and they work.
Let’s assume that the area where you are planning your bed
is now planted in grass. How do you get rid of the grass?
Chemicals or no chemicals? Chemicals are easy, so we’ll look
at the chemical method first.
My favorite chemical for killing grass and weeds is RoundUp,
and used properly it is effective. Rule number one: Read the
label on the package, and mix the chemical exactly as
recommended by the manufacture. Rule number two: Assume that
every plant that the RoundUp touches is going to die. It is a
The first thing you need to do is mark out where your
planting bed is going to be. Spend some time on this step. If
you are landscaping around your house, give careful
consideration to what is going to be planted in the bed, and
then decide how large each plant is going to be when fully
You can keep plants trimmed to a certain size, but be
realistic when you make these estimates. Trust me when I tell
you, this is the number one mistake made by do-it-yourself
landscapers. People are just afraid to make those beds large
Typically, a bed should never be narrower than 42”, and
corner beds should be 12’ in diameter. Islands. If you make
those little tiny island beds that I see everywhere I am going
to come over to your house and snap you with a wet towel! The
island bed in your front yard should be 20’ to 40’ long, and
a minimum of 12’ in diameter on at least one end.
way to mark out your planting beds is to buy a can of marking
paint at the hardware store. Unlike most spray paint, this only
works when the can is inverted, and it is designed specifically
for painting lines on the ground. They even have cans that spray
chalk instead of paint. I’ve always used the paint, it holds
up better if it gets wet.
Once you have the outline of the bed established and marked,
mix up some RoundUp and spray all the grass and weeds inside the
bed area. Do not put RoundUp in a sprayer that you intend to use
for other purposes. You need a sprayer that is dedicated for the
use of herbicides. When applying the spray, be very careful not
to let the spray drift onto the grass and other plants that you
do not want to kill.
To minimize spray drift, adjust the spray nozzle so the spray
pattern is narrow and the droplets are larger. A wide, fine
spray pattern is sure to drift outside of the intended area.
Also keep the pressure in the sprayer quite low. Pump it just
enough to deliver the spray. High pressure causes the spray to
atomize and drift. Apply just enough spray to wet the foliage.
If you have liquid dripping off the blades of grass, you are
applying too much. More is not better.
Once sprayed, be careful not to step in the area that has
been sprayed. Many a people have had golden foot prints across
their lawn because they forgot and walked through what had been
This is the difficult part, and the part that many people do
not get, so pay close attention. The only way that the RoundUp
can possibly work, is if you leave it alone. Did you get that?
Once you apply the RoundUp, don’t do another thing with that
bed for 72 hours. That’s three very long days. I know you’re
anxious, but this is the price you pay for not planning ahead.
RoundUp is a systemic herbicide, which means that it has to
be absorbed by the plant, then trans located throughout the
plant. It takes three days for that to happen. If you go digging
and chopping, you might just as well skip the spraying step. Go
build a compost bin while you’re waiting.
After three days the weeds and grass are going to look as
healthy and happy as ever. Don’t let em fool ya. They’re as
dead as dead can be. Providing the RoundUp didn’t get washed
off by rain within the first 24 hours of the waiting period. Now
you can dig and chop to your heart’s content.
However, the only digging that I do is to go around the edge
of the bed and strip the sod back about 15”. Just peel off
about 1” and flip it into the center of the bed. This makes it
easier to edge and mulch the bed if you get the sod out of the
way. Now for the non chemical method.
Mark out the outline of the bed as described above. Strip the
sod back 15”, just like above. Since you aren’t using any
herbicides I would dig down about 1-1/2” when removing the sod
from the edges. Take the sod you stripped back and lay it in the
center of the bed upside down and pack it down firmly. Now take
newspaper or brown paper grocery bags and cover the entire bed
area. Use 9 layers of newspaper. No matter what method you used,
chemical or non chemical, you are now ready to fill the planting
bed with topsoil.
Put 8 to 12” of good rich topsoil in the bed. Make sure the
soil is higher in the back, closest to the wall, so the water
drains away from the building. If you are creating an island
planting make the center of the bed the highest point. Make sure
the topsoil you buy is well drained and rich in organic matter.
Buying topsoil is a tricky game, you’ve got to be careful and
shop around. Topsoil is one item that you do not want to order
over the phone, sight unseen.
This is what you are looking for when buying topsoil:
Topsoil that is rich in organic matter will be very dark in
color. If the soil is light in color it is probably just fill
sand. The other thing you’ve got to watch for is how well
drained the soil is. Topsoil that has a clay base is poorly
drained and sticky, and your plants will not be happy at all.
They might even die if they are too wet. Once a clay based
topsoil dries out it gets very hard.
Today most topsoil is run through a screener to remove the
clumps, rocks, roots, and sticks. There is nothing wrong with
buying unscreened topsoil,
especially if you’ve visually
inspected it, and have found it to be of good quality. Actually,
really good topsoil shouldn’t have to be screened, but there
is little of that quality topsoil to be had.
When you visit the yard where the soil is stock piled, scoop
up a handful of the topsoil and run it through your fingers. If
it seems to be grainy, it is probably good soil. But if it
appears to tiny round balls, that can be smashed between your
fingers, it is probably a clay based soil that will trap water
during rainy seasons, and get as hard as a rock when it’s hot
Pay attention to how the soil is screened. Some machines just
shake the soil over a set of screens to separate the debris, and
others actually shred the soil. If the soil needs to be
shredded, you don’t want it. Look closely at the pile that the
raw soil is coming from. If the soil in the raw pile is as hard
as a rock, that’s what the screened soil is going be once you
get it in your beds. If it appears to be fairly loose, it’s
probably good soil.
Put 6-8” of topsoil in your beds. You are now ready to
plant. Did you notice that I didn’t get into rototilling and
all kinds of extra work. Nor did I suggest that you add bone
meal or any of those other goodies that the garden centers sell.
I skipped the part about checking the pH too. pH is important,
but I’ve found that good topsoil almost always has a suitable
I’ve got a confession to make. In almost 30 years of
growing, planting, landscaping and the like, I’ve never tested
the pH of the soil on any project that I was working on. Is that
smart? I don’t know, but I’ve been successful in my efforts,
and I have landscaped several hundred homes and grown tens of
thousands of plants.
It’s something to think about. What I’m really trying to
say is don’t get caught up in too many details, and be careful
who you take advice from at those garden stores. Many of those
sales people were flipping burgers last week.
Michael J. McGroarty is the author of this article. Visit his
most interesting website, http://www.freeplants.com
and sign up for his excellent gardening newsletter.
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